15.00 - SQL Statement Structure - Teradata Database

Teradata Database SQL Fundamentals

prodname
Teradata Database
vrm_release
15.00
category
Programming Reference
featnum
B035-1141-015K

SQL Statement Structure

Syntax

The following diagram indicates the basic structure of an SQL statement.

where:

 

This syntax element …

Specifies …

statement_keyword

the name of the statement.

expressions

literals, name references, or operations using names and literals.

functions

the name of a function and its arguments, if any.

keywords

special values introducing clauses or phrases or representing special objects, such as NULL.

Most keywords are reserved words and cannot be used in names.

clauses

subordinate statement qualifiers.

phrases

data attribute phrases.

;

the Teradata SQL statement separator and request terminator.

The semicolon separates statements in a multi-statement request and terminates a request when it is the last nonblank character on an input line in BTEQ.

The request terminator is required for a request defined in the body of a macro.

For the distinction between statement and request, see “SQL Statements and SQL Requests” on page 190.

Typical SQL Statement

A typical SQL statement consists of a statement keyword, one or more column names, a database name, a table name, and one or more optional clauses introduced by keywords. For example, in the following single-statement request, the statement keyword is SELECT:

   SELECT deptno, name, salary 
   FROM personnel.employee 
   WHERE deptno IN(100, 500) 
   ORDER BY deptno, name ; 

The select list for this statement is made up of object names:

  • Deptno, name, and salary (the column names)
  • Personnel (the database name)
  • Employee (the table name)
  • The search condition, or WHERE clause, is introduced by the keyword WHERE.

       WHERE deptno IN(100, 500)

    The sort order, or ORDER BY, clause is introduced by the keywords ORDER BY.

       ORDER BY deptno, name 

    Related Topics

    The pages that follow provide details on the elements that appear in an SQL statement.

     

    For more information on …

    See …

    statement_keyword

    “Keywords” on page 76.

    keywords

    object names

    “Object Names” on page 78.

    expressions

    “Expressions” on page 94.

    functions

    “Functions” on page 98.

    separators

    “Separators” on page 100.

    terminators

    “Terminators” on page 104.