15.00 - Glossary - Parallel Data Pump

Teradata Parallel Data Pump Reference

prodname
Parallel Data Pump
vrm_release
15.00
category
Programming Reference
featnum
B035-3021-034K

A

abend:

Abnormal END of a task. Termination of a task prior to its completion because of an error condition that cannot be resolved by the recovery facilities that operate during execution.

abort:

In Teradata SQL, a statement that stops a transaction in progress and backs out changes to the database only if the conditional expression associated with the abort statement is true.

account

The distinct account name portion of the system account strings, excluding the performance group designation. Accounts can be employed wherever a user object can be specified.

access module:

A software component that provides a standard set of I/O functions to access data on a specific device.

Acquisition Phase:

Responsible for populating the primary data subtables of the work tables. Data is received from the host, converted into internal format, and inserted into the work tables. The work tables are sorted at the end of the acquisition phase and prior to the application phase.

administrator:

A special user responsible for allocating resources to a community of users.

AMP:

Access Module Processor. A vproc that receives steps from a PE and performs database functions to retrieve or update data. Each AMP is associated with one vdisk, where the data is stored. An AMP manages only its own vdisk and not the vdisk of any other AMP.

ANSI:

American National Standards Institute. ANSI maintains a standard for SQL. For information about Teradata compliance with ANSI SQL, see SQL Fundamentals (B035‑1141).

Application Phase:

Responsible for turning rows from a work table into updates, deletes, and inserts and applying them to a single target table.

architecture:

A definition and preliminary design which describes the components of a solution and their interactions. Architecture is the blueprint by which implementers construct a solution that meets the defined needs.

ASCII:

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Pronounced as‑key. A character set used primarily on personal computers.

B

BTEQ:

Basic Teradata Query. A utility that allows users on a workstation to access data on Teradata Database, and format reports for both print and screen output. A CLI program used to interact with Teradata Database. BTEQ commands control sessions, submit Teradata SQL requests, format results, and handle output data. BTEQ can also be used to verify the installation of Teradata client utilities.

C

CLIv2:

Call‑Level Interface Version 2. A collection of callable service routines that provide an interface to Teradata Database. Specifically, CLI is the interface between the application program and the Micro Teradata Directory Program (for network‑attached clients) or the Micro Operating System Interface (for network‑attached clients). CLIv2 provides the application with a pointer to each of the parcels returned from Teradata Database.

channelattached:

Peripheral devices directly attached to a computer via a channel or bus. The term is used in contrast with devices that are reached remotely over a network

character set:

A grouping of alphanumeric and special characters used by computer systems to support different user languages and applications. Various character sets have been codified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

checkpoint rate:

The interval between checkpoint operations during the acquisition phase of an import task, expressed as either the number of rows read from the client system or sent to Teradata Database, or as an amount of time, in minutes.

client:

A computer that can access Teradata Database.

cluster :

Logical, table‑level archive whereby only those rows residing on specific AMPs, and which are members of the specified cluster, are archived onto a single tape data set. This allows multiple jobs to be applied for backup of large tables, to reduce the backup window. This method is used to affect a parallel archive/restore operation via a “divide and conquer” backup strategy.

COBOL:

Common Business‑Oriented Language

column:

In the relational model of Teradata SQL, databases consist of one or more tables. In turn, each table consists of fields, organized into one or more columns by zero or more rows. All of the fields of a given column share the same attributes.

D

DDL:

Data Definition Language. In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate database structures (such as CREATE, MODIFY, DROP, GRANT, REVOKE, and GIVE) and the Data Dictionary information kept about those structures.

Data Dictionary:

In Teradata Database, the information automatically maintained about all tables, views, macros, databases, and users known to Teradata Database, including information about ownership, space allocation, accounting, and privilege relationships between those objects. Data Dictionary information is updated automatically during the processing of data definition statements, and is used by the parser to obtain information needed to process all Teradata SQL statements.

data loading:

The process of loading data from a client platform to a Teradata Database server. For Teradata TPump, data loading includes any combination of INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and UPSERT operations.

data manipulation:

In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that change the information content of the database. These statements include INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

data warehouse:

A subject oriented, integrated, time‑variant, non‑volatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process. A repository of consistent historical data that can be easily accessed and manipulated for decision support.

DBA:

Database administrator. Generally, a person responsible for the design and management of one or more databases and for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of database management systems.

DD:

Data dictionary or data definition. See also Data Dictionary.

DEFINE statement:

A statement preceding the INSERT statement that describes the fields in a record before the record is inserted in the table. This statement is similar to the SQL USING clause.

DELETE statement:

A task that uses a full file scan to remove a large number of rows from a single Teradata Database table. A delete task is composed of three major phases: preliminary, application, and end. The phases are a collection of one or more transactions that are processed in a predefined order according to utility protocol.

delimiter:

In Teradata SQL, a punctuation mark or other special symbol that separates one clause in a Teradata SQL statement from another, or that separates one Teradata SQL statement from another.

DLL:

Dynamic link library. A feature of the Windows family of operating systems that allows executable routines to be stored separately as files with .dll extensions and to be loaded only when needed by a program.

DML:

Data manipulation language. In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate or change the information content of the database. These statements include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

E

EBCDIC:

Extended binary coded decimal interchange code. An IBM code that uses 8 bits to represent 256 possible characters. It is used primarily in IBM mainframes, whereas personal computers use ASCII.

error tables:

Tables created during processing that capture any errors that occurred. The Teradata convention is to name the tables ET and UV. An ET table contains errors that occur during the Acquisition Phase related to data and the data environment (such as constraint violations and unavailable AMPs). A UV table contains errors that occur during the Application Phase related to violations of unique primary indexes.

extract:

The process of copying a subset of data from a source to a target environment.

exit routines:

Specifies a predefined action to be performed whenever certain significant events occur during a utility job.

F

failure:

Any condition that precludes complete processing of a Teradata SQL statement. Any failure will abort the current transaction.

FastExport:

Teradata FastExport utility. A program that quickly transfers large amounts of data from tables and views of Teradata Database to a client application.

FastLoad:

Teradata FastLoad utility. A program that loads empty tables on Teradata Database with data from a network‑attached or channel‑attached client.

field:

The basic unit of information stored in Teradata Database. A field is either null, or has a single numeric or string value. See also column, database, row, table.

I

import:

The process of pulling system information into a program. To add system information from an external source to another system. The system receiving the data must support the internal format or structure of the data.

INMOD Routine:

User‑written routines that can be used by load/export utilities to preprocess input records before they are sent to Teradata Database. Routines can be written in C language (for network‑attached platforms), or IBM C, COBOL, PL/I or Assembler (for channel‑attached platforms). A routine can read and preprocess records from a file, generate data records, read data from other database systems, validate data records, and convert data record fields.

instance:

In object‑oriented programming, the relationship between an object and its class. The object is an instance of the class.

I/O:

Input/output

J

JCL:

Job Control Language. A language for describing jobs (units of work) to the OS/390, z/OS, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's OS/390 and z800/900 large server (mainframe) computers. These operating systems allocate time and space resources among the total number of active jobs. Jobs in turn break down into job steps, which are the statements required to run a particular program. Jobs are background (sometimes called batch) units of work that run without requiring user interaction (for example, print jobs). In addition, the operating system manages interactive (foreground) user requests that initiate units of work. In general, foreground work is given priority over background work.

job script:

A set of commands and Teradata SQL statements that can initiate an operation that inserts new rows, updates existing rows, and deletes rows in specified target tables and views in Teradata Database.

join:

A SELECT operation that combines information from two or more tables to produce a result.

L

locks:

Teradata load/unload utilities automatically lock any table being loaded and free a lock only after an END LOADING statement is entered. Therefore, tables are only available when the operation is complete.

log:

A record of events. A file that records events. Many programs produce log files. Often a log file is looked at to determine what is happening when problems occur. Log files have the extension “.log”.

M

macro:

A file created and stored on Teradata Database and executed in response to a Teradata SQL EXECUTE statement. Each macro execution is implicitly treated as a transaction.

methods:

In object‑oriented programming, programming routines by which objects are manipulated.

MultiLoad:

Teradata MultiLoad utility. A command‑driven utility that performs fast, high‑volume maintenance functions on multiple tables and views of Teradata Database.

multiset tables:

Tables that allow duplicate rows.

N

name:

A word supplied by the user that refers to an object, such as a column, database, macro, table, user, or view.

networkattached:

A computer that communicates over the LAN with a server (for example, Teradata Database).

notify exit:

A user‑defined exit routine that specifies a predefined action to be performed whenever certain significant events occur during a job. For example, by writing an exit in C (without using CLIv2) and using the NotifyExit attribute, the routine can detect whether a job succeeds or fails, the number of loaded records, the return code for a failed job, and so on.

null:

The absence of a value for a field.

O

object:

In object‑oriented programming, a unique instance of a data structure defined according to the template provided by its class. Each object has its own values for the variables belonging to its class and can respond to the messages, or methods, defined by its class.

owner:

In Teradata SQL, the user who has the ability to grant or revoke all privileges on a database. By default, the creator of the database is the owner, but ownership can be transferred from one user to another by the GIVE statement.

P

parameter:

A variable name in a macro for which an argument value is substituted when the macro is executed.

parser:

A program executing in a PE that translates Teradata SQL statements entered by a user into the steps that accomplish the user’s intensions.

PE:

Parsing engine. The vprocs that receive SQL requests from the client and break the requests into steps. The PE sends the steps to the AMPs and subsequently returns the answer to the client.

PL/I:

Programming Language/1, a programming language supported for MultiLoad development.

primary key:

The field (column) in a database table that is indexed and maintains the main sequence of the table. For example, account numbers are typically primary keys. A “composite primary key” is made up of two or more fields (columns) such as region + account number. A primary key is also known as a unique identifier.

privilege:

A user’s right to perform read, write, and execute operations against a table, database, user, macro, or view.

R

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System):

A database management system in which complex data structures are represented as simple two‑dimensional tables consisting of columns and rows. For Teradata, RDBMS is referred to as Teradata Database.

records:

When using Teradata utilities, both formatted and unformatted records are accepted for loading. A formatted record, in the Teradata Database world, consists of a record created by a Teradata utility, such as BTEQ, where the record is packaged with begin‑ and end‑record bytes specific to Teradata Database. Unformatted records are any data file, such as a text file, that does not have various properties such as a consistent structure with regard to record length and order of data elements. These files must be defined before loading onto Teradata Database.

request:

In host software, a message sent from an application program to Teradata Database.

restart log table:

One of four restart tables that the Teradata utilities require for restarting a paused job.

result:

The information returned to the user to satisfy a request made of Teradata Database.

row:

The fields that represent one entry under each column in a table. The row is the smallest unit of information operated on by data manipulation statements.

S

schema:

Used for identifying the structure of data. Producers have an output schema to define what the source data will look like in the data stream. Consumers have an input schema to define what is read from the data stream. If the input and output schemas are the same, the schema need only be defined once.

script:

A file that contains a set of commands and SQL statements that initiates an operation or job.

separator:

A character or group of characters that separates words and special symbols in Teradata SQL. Blanks and comments are the most common separators.

server:

The computer system running Teradata Database. Typically, a Teradata Database server has multiple nodes, which may include both TPA and non‑TPA nodes. All nodes of the server are connected via the Teradata BYNET or other similar interconnect.

session:

A session begins when the user logs on to Teradata Database and ends when the user logs off Teradata Database. Also called a Teradata Database session. In client software, a logical connection between an application program on a host and Teradata Database that permits the application program to send one request to and receive one response from Teradata Database at a time.

source:

The table designated to receive data that is moved or copied from some other source file, table, or database.

SQL:

Structured Query Language. An industry‑standard language for creating, updating and, querying relational database management systems. SQL was developed by IBM in the 1970s for use in System R. It is the de facto standard as well as being an ISO and ANSI standard. It is often embedded in general purpose programming languages.

The programming language used to communicate with Teradata Database.

SSO:

Single Sign On. An authentication option that allows Teradata users on Windows systems to access Teradata Database based on authorized network usernames and passwords. This feature simplifies the procedure requiring users to enter an additional username and password when logging on to Teradata Database using client applications.

statement:

A request for processing by Teradata Database that consists of a keyword verb, optional phrases, operands, and is processed as a single entity.

statistics:

The details of the processes used to collect, analyze, and transform the database objects used by a given query.

T

table:

A set of one or more columns with zero or more rows that consist of fields of related information.

target database:

The database designated to receive data that is moved or copied from some other source file, table, or database.

target table:

the table designated to receive data that is moved or copied from another table, source file, or database.

TDPID:

Teradata Director Program Identifier. The name of the Teradata Database being accessed.

Teradata SQL:

Teradata Database dialect of the relational language SQL, having data definition and data manipulation statements. For example, CREATE TABLE is a data definition statement. A data manipulation statement is a data retrieval statement, such as SELECT.

transaction:

A set of Teradata SQL statements executed as a unit. All of the statements must execute normally or else any changes made during the transaction are backed out and none of the remaining statements in the transaction are executed. Teradata Database supports both ANSI and Teradata transaction semantics.

trigger:

One or more Teradata SQL statements associated with a table and executed when specified conditions are met.

type:

A column attribute that specifies the representation of data values for fields in that column. Teradata SQL data types include numerics and strings.

U

UDF

User‑Defined Function. UDFs are extensions to Teradata SQL. Users can write UDFs to analyze and transform data already stored in their data warehouse in ways that are beyond the functionality of Teradata’s native functions.

UDM

User‑Defined Method. A custom function explicitly connected to a UDT. Functionality applicable to a UDT can be located in the UDM associated with that UDT instead of being replicated to all of the applications that use that UDT, simplifies maintenance.

UDT

User‑Defined Type. A collection of one or more data values organized into a single customized data type and a set of methods that operates on those values.

user:

In Teradata SQL, a database associated with a person who uses Teradata Database. The database stores the person’s private information and accesses other Teradata Databases.

UPI:

Unique primary index; a UPI is required and is typically assigned to major entities in the database.

user:

A person who uses Teradata Database. The database stores the person’s private information and accesses other Teradata Databases.

UTF8:

Teradata’s 8‑bit multi‑byte character set used by Teradata Database to calculate an export width based on column character set (Latin, Unicode, KanjiSJIS) and for the session. For example “Col1 Char(100) Latin Character set” will be exported as 100 bytes for ASCII session and 300 bytes in UTF‑8.

UTF16

Teradata’s 16‑bit multi‑byte character set.

Z

z/Linux

Linux operating system (RedHat or SuSE) compiled to run on IBM System z machines.

z/OS (MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage)

One of the primary operating systems for large IBM computers.