The SQLSTATE and SQLCODE variables are documented in SQL Data Manipulation Language (B035‑1146).
SQLSTATE is an ANSI standard, 5 character string value logically divided into a 2 character class and a 3 character subclass.
SQLSTATE is defined as:
Definition: 01 SQLSTATE PIC X(5);
A SQLSTATE and a SQLCODE variable can be defined for the same compilation unit. Both contain valid result codes.