15.10 - Glossary - Preprocessor2 for Embedded SQL

Teradata Preprocessor2 for Embedded SQL Programmer Guide

Preprocessor2 for Embedded SQL
Programming Reference



Two-Phase Commit.



The distinct account name portion of the system account strings, excluding the performance group designation. Accounts can be employed wherever a user object can be specified.


Application Program Interface. A language and message format that translates program code in order to communicate with an operating system or other control program. When a program calls a function in the API, the program request is translated and executed through the API function.


American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A character set used primarily on personal computers.



Begin Transaction End Transaction. The Transaction mode (option TRANSACT or ‑tr) that implicitly creates transactions for each SQL request if there is not an active transaction. Commands that mark a unit of work that is all updated or all rolled back (not updated).


A utility that allows users on a workstation to access data on a Teradata Database, and format reports for both print and screen output.

A CLI application program used to interact with the Teradata Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). BTEQ commands are used for controlling sessions, submitting Teradata SQL requests, formatting results, and handling output data. BTEQ may also be used to verify the installation of Teradata client utilities.



Customer Information Control System. An online transaction processing (OLTP) program from IBM used with the COBOL programming language. Using the application programming interface (API) provided by CICS, a programmer can write programs that communicate with online users and read from or write to customer and other records (orders, inventory figures, customer data, and so forth) in a database (usually referred to as “data sets”) using CICS facilities rather than IBM’s access methods directly. Like other transaction managers, CICS can ensure that transactions are completed and, if not, undo partly completed transactions so that the integrity of data records is maintained.


Call-Level Interface version 2. A library of routines that enable an application program to access data stored in Teradata Database. When used with network-attached clients, CLIv2 contains the following components:

  • CLI (Call-Level Interface)
  • MTDP (Micro Teradata Director Program)
  • MOSI (Micro Operating System Interface)
  • Version 2 of the CLI interface. A collection of callable service routines that provide an interface to a Teradata Database. The interface between the application program and the MTDP (for network-attached clients) or TDP (for mainframe-attached clients).


    For network-attached systems. The internal SPB is a data structure that is examined during initialization. During initialization, any DBCAREA values not set in the clispb.dat file default to the values contained in CLI2SPB.


    Common Business Oriented Language. A programming language for simple computations on large amounts of data, designed by the CODASYL Committee in April 1960. COBOL’s natural language style is intended to be largely self-documenting. It introduced the record structure.


    Central Processing Unit. CPUs (Central Processing Units) are not physically associated with vprocs.



    Database Administrator. Generally, a person responsible for the design and management of one or more databases and for the evaluation, selection and implementation of database management systems.


    Database Computer. Name of database with Teradata Database system tables.


    A communication structure shared by an application program and CLI. The application uses it to forward control and data information. CLI uses it to return control and data information. An application may use a single DBCAREA or multiple DBCAREAs. CLI retains no knowledge of a particular DBCAREA across multiple CLI calls. CLI is concerned only with the values for DBCAREA that are meaningful to the routine called.


    Supports manipulating database structures and the Data Dictionary information kept about these structures. In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate database structures (such as CREATE, MODIFY, DROP, GRANT, REVOKE, and GIVE) and the Data Dictionary information kept about those structures. In the typical, pre-relational data management system, data definition and data manipulation facilities are separated, and the data definition facilities are less flexible and more difficult to use than in a relational system.See SQL Data Definition Language (B035‑1144) to learn more.


    Data Manipulation Language. In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate or change the information content of the database. These statements include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. To find out about DML statements, see SQL Data Manipulation Language (B035‑1146).



    Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. An IBM code that uses 8 bits to represent 256 possible characters. It is used primarily on IBM mainframes, whereas personal computers use ASCII.



    Host System Interface System Parameter Block for CLIv2. CLIv2 SPB for mainframe-attached systems. A data structure that is examined during initialization. HSHSPB is the source of the default DBCAREA values if the application did not set these values in the DBCAREA.



    Identifier or Identification.


    Information Management System. A database system from IBM consisting of IMS/Data Base and IMS/Data Communications.

    inner join

    In Teradata SQL, a join operation on two or more tables, according to a join condition, that returns the qualifying rows from each table.



    Job Control Language. A language that describes jobs (units of work) to the OS/390, z/OS, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM OS/390 and z800/900 large server (mainframe) computers. These operating systems allocate their time and space resources among the total number of jobs that have been started in the computer. Jobs in turn break down into job steps. All the statements required to run a particular program constitute a job step. Jobs are background (sometimes called batch) units of work that run without requiring user interaction (for example, print jobs). In addition, the operating system manages interactive (foreground) user requests that initiate units of work. In general, foreground work is given priority over background work.


    Japanese Industrial Standards. Specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan. The standardization process is coordinated by Japanese Industrial Standards Committee and published through Japanese Standards Association.


    A select operation that combines information from two or more tables to produce a result.



    Position Independent Code. Object code that can execute at different locations in memory. PIC is commonly used for shared libraries so that the same library code can be mapped to a location in each application (using the virtual memory system) where it will not overlap the application or other shared libraries.


    An attempt to combine the best features of Fortran, COBOL and ALGOL 60. Developed by George Radin of IBM in 1964. Originally named NPL and Fortran VI. PL/I was one of the first languages to have a formal semantic definition, using the Vienna Definition Language.

    PL/I has no reserved words. Types are fixed, float, complex, character strings with maximum length, bit strings, and label variables. Arrays have lower bounds and may be dynamic. It also has summation, multi-level structures, structure assignment, un-typed pointers, side effects and aliasing. Control flow constructs include goto; do-end groups; do-to-by-while-end loops; external procedures; internal nested procedures and blocks; generic procedures and exception handling. Procedures may be declared recursive. Many implementations support concurrency ('call task' and 'wait(event)' are equivalent to fork/join) and compile-time statements. A programming language supported for MultiLoad development.


    Preprocessor2. Used to incorporate SQL statements into application programs that access data in a Teradata Database.

    product join

    In Teradata SQL, the type of join that occurs when the WHERE conditional of a SELECT statement causes the Teradata Database system to compare all qualifying rows from one table to all qualifying rows from another table. Because each row of one table is compared to each row of another table, this join can be costly in terms of system performance. Note that product joins without an overall WHERE constraint are considered unconstrained (Cartesian). If the tables to be joined are small, the effect of an unconstrained join on performance may be negligible. If they are large, there may be a severe negative effect on system performance.


    query management

    The primary function of DWM is to manage logons and queries. This feature examines logon and query requests before they are dispatched for execution within Teradata Database, and may reject logons, and may reject or delay queries. It does this by comparing the objects referenced in the requests to the types of DBA-defined rules.



    In host software, a message sent from an application program to Teradata Database.

    resource partition

    A collection of prioritized PGs related by user associations. Has an assigned weight that determines the proportion of resources available to that partition relative to the other partitions defined for that Teradata Database.

    RowID join

    In Teradata SQL, this join occurs when one of the join tables has a non-unique primary index constant, and another column of that table matches weakly with a non-unique secondary index column of the second table.


    Rules are the name given to the method used by DWM to define what requests are prohibited from being immediately executed on Teradata Database. That is, the rules enforced by DWM provide the Query Management capabilities.


    scheduled requests

    The capability to store scripts of SQL requests and execute them at a scheduled, later time.


    Symmetric Multi- Processing. An SMP platform consists of a single Teradata node. An SMP system has multiple CPUs that work together. All applications run under a single operating system on the node. The AMPs and PEs on an SMP system communicate through the BYNET software that handles the message queuing and flow control.


    Structured Query Language. An industry-standard language for creating, updating, and querying RDBMSs. IBM developed SQL in the 1970s for use in System R. It is the default standard as well as being an ISO and an ANSI standard. It is often embedded in general-purpose programming languages. A programming language used to communicate with Teradata Database.


    SQL Communications Area. AA data structure containing a list of return codes and other status information about a completed DML statement. SQLCA provides the following support for embedded SQL applications: result reporting, warning condition reporting, and support for DSNTIAR. See SQL Stored Procedures and Embedded SQL (B035‑1148) to learn more.


    SQL Descriptor Area.


    Single Sign-On. An authentication option that allows Teradata Database on Windows 2000 users to access Teradata Database based on authorized network usernames and passwords. This feature simplifies the procedure requiring users to enter an additional username and password when logging on to Teradata Database using client applications. Allows users of Teradata Database on Windows 2000 systems to access Teradata Database based on their authorized network usernames and passwords.

    This feature simplifies the procedure requiring users to enter an additional username and password when logging on to Teradata Database through client applications.



    Teradata Director Program. A high-performance interface for messages communicated between the client and the Teradata system. TDP transforms headers and parcels into one or more channel blocks and sends the channel blocks over the block multiplexer channel to the Teradata system. It provides the data communications component of the Teradata Database. Every mainframe-attached client system connected to a Teradata system has at least one TDP associated with it.


    Teradata Director Program Identifier. The name of the Teradata Database being accessed or monitored.


    Time Sharing Option. IBM system software that provides time-sharing on an IBM mainframe running in a z/OS environment.



    User-Defined Function. A routine the system user (programmer) defines or programs and includes in a standard library of functions. UDFs extend the functionality of Teradata Database native functions.


    Universal Transformation Format. A method for converting 16-bit Unicode characters into 7- or 8-bit characters. UTF-7 converts to 7-bit ASCII for transmission over 7-bit mail systems. UTF-8 converts Unicode to 8-bit bytes.



    Virtual Storage. An IBM disk file storage scheme first used in S/370. IMS/DB and DB2 are implemented on top of VS and use its underlying data structures.



    An IBM mainframe operating system. One of the primary operating systems for large IBM computers.