15.10 - Glossary - Parallel Transporter

Teradata Parallel Transporter User Guide

prodname
Parallel Transporter
vrm_release
15.10
category
User Guide
featnum
B035-2445-035K

A

access module

A software component that provides a standard set of I/O functions to access data on a specific device.

Access Module Processor (AMP)

A virtual processor that receives steps from a parsing engine (PE) and performs database functions to retrieve or update data. Each AMP is associated with one virtual disk, where the data is stored. An AMP manages only its own virtual disk and not the virtual disk of any other AMP.

access rights

See privilege.

administrator

A special user responsible for allocating resources to a community of users.

AMP

See Access Module Processor (AMP).

ANSI

American National Standards Institute. ANSI maintains a standard for SQL. Go to http://www.info.teradata.com for information about Teradata compliance with ANSI standards.

application

A complete, self-contained program that performs a specific function directly for the user. Contrast this to system software (two examples of system software are operating system kernels and libraries) which exists to support applications.

Application Programming Interface (API)

An interface (calling conventions) by which an application accesses an operating system and other services. An API is defined at source code level and provides a level of abstraction between the application and the kernel (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the portability of the code.

An API can also provide an interface between a high‑level language and lower‑level utilities and services written without consideration for the calling conventions supported by compiled languages. In this case, the API may translate the parameter lists from one format to another and interpret call-by-value and call-by-reference arguments in one or both directions.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols.

B

Basic Teradata Query (BTEQ)

A CLI application program used to interact with the Teradata Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). BTEQ commands are used for controlling sessions, submitting Teradata SQL requests, formatting results, and handling output data. BTEQ may also be used to verify the installation of Teradata client utilities.

C

Call-Level Interface (CLI)

A programming interface designed to support SQL access to databases from shrink-wrapped application programs. SQL/CLI provides and international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. Client-server tools can easily access database through dynamic link libraries. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools.

Call-Level Interface Version 2 (CLIv2)

Specifically for network-attached clients, a collection of callable service routines that provide an interface to the Teradata Database. Specifically, CLI is the interface between the application program and the Micro Teradata Directory Program (for network-attached clients). CLI builds parcels that MTDP packages for sending to the Teradata Database using the Micro Operating System Interface (MOSI) and provides the application with a pointer to each of the parcels returned from the Teradata Database.

CLOB

Character Large Object.

column

In the relational model of Teradata SQL, databases consist of one or more tables. In turn, each table consists of fields, organized into one or more columns by zero or more rows. All of the fields of a given column share the same attributes.

consumer

In Teradata PT, a type of operator that accepts data from other operators and stores it in an external data store, such as a file or Teradata Database table. A consumer operator consumes the data from the data stream buffer.

cost

This is the outlay of database resources used by a given query.

D

data definition

The statements and facilities that manipulate database structures and the Data Dictionary information kept about these structures. These statements include CREATE, DROP, ALTER, and MODIFY.

Data Definition Language (DDL)

In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate database structures (such as CREATE, MODIFY, DROP, GRANT, REVOKE, and GIVE) and the dictionary information kept about those structures. In the typical, pre-relational data management system, data definition and data manipulation facilities are separated, and the data definition facilities are less flexible and more difficult to use than in a relational system.

Data Dictionary

In the Teradata Database, the information automatically maintained about all tables, views, macros, databases, and users known to the Teradata Database system. It includes information about ownership, space allocation, accounting, and access right relationships between those objects. Data Dictionary information is updated automatically during the processing of Teradata SQL data definition statements. It is used by the parser to obtain information needed to process all Teradata SQL statements.

data manipulation language (DML)

In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate or change the information content of the database. These statements include INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

data streams

Buffers in memory for temporarily holding data. A data stream is not a physical file; rather it is more like a pipe (in the UNIX or Windows systems), or a batch pipe in z/OS.

DataConnector operator

IA Teradata PT (producer or consumer) operator that emulates the Data Connector API within the Teradata PT infrastructure.

database

A related set of tables that share a common space allocation and owner. A collection of objects that provide a logical grouping for information. The objects include, tables, views, macros, triggers, and stored procedures.

DBMS

Database management system.

DBS

Acronym for Database System or Database Software.

DBS Control information

DBS Control information is a group of fields used by Teradata Database for debugging and diagnostic purposes, establishing known global system values, and conducting performance tuning.

DDL operator

A standalone Teradata PT operator that allows you to perform any necessary database routines prior to a load/apply job without having to use another utility such as BTEQ. For example, you can create tables or indexes, or drop tables, as needed, before starting a load/apply job. As a standalone operator, supporting only one instance, the DDL operator does not send or retrieve data to or from a Teradata PT operator interface.

delete task

A task that uses a full file scan to remove a large number of rows from a single Teradata Database table.

DLL

Dynamic link library. A feature of the Windows family of operating systems that allows executable routines to be stored separately as files with .dll extensions and to be loaded only when needed by a program.

DML

Data manipulation language. In Teradata SQL, the statements and facilities that manipulate or change the information content of the database. These statements include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

driver

In Teradata PT, the term that refers to combination of the operators from the Teradata PT product and application programming interface program code.

DSN

Data source name.

E

EBCDIC

Extended binary coded decimal interchange code. An IBM code that uses 8 bits to represent 256 possible characters. It is used primarily in IBM mainframes, whereas personal computers use ASCII.

endianness

The byte ordering convention of data that is represented with multiple bytes. Big-endian is an order in which the “big end” (most significant value in the sequence) is stored first (at the lowest storage address). Little-endian is an order in which the “little end” (least significant value in the sequence) is stored first. For example, in a big-endian computer, the number 256 is indicated as 0x01 0x00. In a little-endian computer, the number 256 is indicated as 0x00 0x01.

export

This refers to extracting or transferring system information from the tables and views of a given Teradata Database and saving it so it can be manipulated or pulled into another system.

Export operator

A Teradata PT producer operator that emulates some of the functions of the FastExport utility in the Teradata PT infrastructure.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)

A character encoding used on IBM mainframe systems.

F

FastExport utility

Fast data export utility. A program that transfers large amounts of data from the Teradata Database to a network-attached or mainframe-attached client.

FastLoad utility

Fast data load utility. A program that loads empty tables on the Teradata Database with data from a network-attached or mainframe-attached client.

FastLoad INMOD Adapter operator

A Teradata PT producer operator that acts as a “wrapper” for Teradata FastLoad utility INMOD routines, allowing you to use them within the Teradata PT infrastructure.

FastExport OUTMOD Adapter operator

A Teradata PT consumer operator that acts as a “wrapper” for Teradata FastExport utility OUTMOD routines, allowing you to use them within the Teradata PT infrastructure.

field

The basic unit of information stored in the Teradata Database. A field is either null, or has a single numeric or string value. Also see column, row, and table.

filter operator

In Teradata PT, an operator that filters data en route from other operators.

formatted records

See records.

G

gateway

A device that connects networks having different protocols.

I

ICU

An acronym for a library of routines that handle Unicode UTF16/UTF8 session character sets.

import

The process of pulling system information into a program. To add system information from an external source to another system. The system receiving the data must support the internal format or structure of the data.

INMOD routine

The term INMOD is an acronym for input modification routines. These are user exit routines that Teradata PT and other load/export utilities can call to provide enhanced processing functions on input records before they are sent to the Teradata Database.

instance

In object-oriented programming, refers to the relationship between an object and its class. The object is an instance of the class. In Teradata PT, an instance is an occurrence of a fully defined Teradata PT operator, with its source and target data flows, number of sessions, etc. Teradata PT can process multiple instances of operators.

J

JCL

JCL (job control language) is a language for describing jobs (units of work) to the z/OS, and VSE operating systems, which run on IBM's 800/900 large server (mainframe) computers. These operating systems allocate their time and space resources among the total number of jobs that have been started in the computer. Jobs in turn break down into job steps. All the statements required to run a particular program constitute a job step. Jobs are background (sometimes called batch) units of work that run without requiring user interaction (for example, print jobs). In addition, the operating system manages interactive (foreground) user requests that initiate units of work. In general, foreground work is given priority over background work.

JES

Job Entry Subsystem. A z/OS subsystem of the IBM OS/390 and z/OS mainframe operating systems that manages jobs (units of work) that execute on the system. Each job is described to the operating system by system administrators or other users in job control language (JCL). There are two versions, JES2 and JES3. JES3 allows central control of the processing of jobs using a common work queue. OS/390 and z/OS provide an interactive menu for initiating and managing jobs.

Job

An invocation of the Teradata PT software, usually to accomplish the movement of data into or out of a Teradata Data Warehouse.

Job step

A unit of execution of a Teradata PT job.

join

A SELECT operation that combines information from two or more tables to produce a result.

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation.

L

LAN

Local area network. LANs supported by Teradata products must conform to the IEEE 802.3 standard (Ethernet LAN).

Load operator

A Teradata PT consumer operator that emulates some of the functions of the FastLoad utility in the Teradata PT infrastructure.

LOB

Large Object.

log

A record of events. A file that records events. Many programs produce log files. Often you will look at a log file to determine what is happening when problems occur. Log files have the extension “.log”.

log stream

The functionality in the Teradata PT Logger is built around the concept of a log stream. A log stream is a series of log messages defined in one message catalog and initiated from one originator. One originator may initiate several log streams (for example, if there are multiple operators in one originator).

M

macro

A set of Teradata SQL statements stored by the Teradata Database and executed by a single EXECUTE statement. Each macro execution is implicitly treated as a transaction.

methods

In object-oriented programming, methods are the programming routines by which objects are manipulated.

MultiLoad INMOD Adapter operator

A Teradata PT operator that acts as a “wrapper” for Teradata MultiLoad utility INMOD routines, allowing you to use them within the Teradata PT infrastructure. This operator can be used as both a producer and a filter operator.

MultiLoad utility

Multiple table update utility. A program that executes specified insert, update, and delete operations against up to five Teradata Database tables.

Multiple Virtual Storage (z/OS)

The operating system for older IBM mainframes.

N

name

A word supplied by the user that refers to an object, such as a column, database, macro, table, user, or view.

network

A user-defined exit routine that specifies a predefined action to be performed whenever certain significant events occur during a Teradata PT job.

For example, by writing an exit in C (without using CLIv2) and using the NotifyExit attribute in an operator definition, you can provide a routine to detect whether a Teradata PT job succeeds or fails, how many records were loaded, what the return code is for a failed job, and so on.

notify exit

In the context of the Teradata Database, a LAN. See LAN.

null

The absence of a value for a field.

O

object

In object-oriented programming, a unique instance of a data structure defined according to the template provided by its class. Each object has its own values for the variables belonging to its class and can respond to the messages, or methods, defined by its class.

object definition

The details of the structure and instances of the objects used by a given query. Object definitions are used to create the tables, views, and macros, triggers, join indexes, and stored procedures in a database.

ODBC operator

A Teradata PT producer operator that enables universal open data access with many ODBC compliant data sources, including Oracle, SQL Server, DB2, etc. The ODBC operator runs on all Teradata PT supported platforms. It reads data close to the sources, and then feeds the data directly to the Teradata Database without the need of an intermediate staging platform.

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

Under ODBC, drivers are used to connect applications with databases. The ODBC driver processes ODBC calls from an application, but passes SQL requests to the Teradata Database for processing.

operator

In object-oriented programming, refers to a function that implements a method.

operator routine

The term used in the Teradata Parallel Transporter (Teradata PT) product to describe the modules of code responsible for handling particular tasks usually relating to one of the Teradata Database protocols. These operators reside in dynamically-linked libraries.

The terms operator routine and operator function may be used interchangeably.

OS Command operator

Standalone operator that executes OS commands to a client environment during the Teradata PT utility operations.

P

parameter

A variable name in a macro for which an argument value is substituted when the macro is executed.

privilege

In Teradata SQL, a user’s right to perform the Teradata SQL statements granted to him or her against a table, database, user, macro, or view. Also know as access right.

producer

In Teradata PT, a type of operator that retrieves data from an external data store, such as a file, Teradata Database table, etc., and provides it to other operators. A producer operator produces the data into the data stream’s buffer.

production system

A Teradata Database used in a live environment. A system that is actively used for day to day business operations. This differs from a test or development system that is used to create new queries or test new features before using them on the production system.

Q

query

A Teradata SQL statement, such as a SELECT statement.

R

random AMP sample (RAS)

An arbitrary sample from an Access Module Processor (AMP). These are samples of the tables in a query or all of the tables in a given database. Also known as RAS.

records

When using the DataConnector operator, formatted, unformatted, and text records are accepted. A formatted record, in the Teradata Database world, consists of a record created by a Teradata utility, such as BTEQ, where the record is packaged with begin- and end-record bytes specific to the Teradata Database. Unformatted records are any records not originating on a Teradata Database, such as spreadsheets and non-Teradata Database files. These files contain records that must be defined before loading onto the Teradata Database.

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

A database management system in which complex data structures are represented as simple two-dimensional tables consisting of columns and rows. For Teradata, RDBMS is referred to as Teradata Database.

request

In host software, a message sent from an application program to the Teradata Database.

result

The information returned to the user to satisfy a request made of the Teradata Database.

row

The fields that represent one entry under each column in a table. The row is the smallest unit of information operated on by data manipulation statements.

S

schema

Schemas are used to identify the structure of the data. Producers have an output schema, to define what the source data will look like in the data stream. Consumers have an input schema, to define what will be read from the data stream. If the input and output schemas are the same, you only define the schema once.

session

Also called a Teradata Database session. A session begins when the user logs on to Teradata Database and ends when the user logs off Teradata Database. In client software, a logical connection between an application program on a host and Teradata Database. The connection permits the application program to send one request at a time to and receive one response at a time from Teradata.

SQL

See Structured Query Language (SQL).

SQL Inserter operator

A Teradata PT consumer operator that accepts data from other Teradata PT operators.

SQL Selector operator

A Teradata PT producer operator that submits a Teradata SQL SELECT statement to the Teradata Database.

standalone operator

A type of operator that does not exchange data with other operators, such as MultiLoad, FastLoad, and FastExport.

Standard Template Library (STL)

Standard Template Library is a software library of C++ algorithms, container classes and iterators. It is available on most platforms. Teradata PT uses features in the STL. The C++ Standard Library is defined by ISO/IEC 14882.

statement

A request for processing by the Teradata Database that consists of a keyword verb, optional phrases, and operands. It is processed as a single entity.

statistics

These are the details of the processes used to collect, analyze, and transform the database objects used by a given query.

Standard Template Library (STL)

Standard Template Library is a software library of C++ algorithms, container classes and iterators. It is available on most platforms. Teradata PT uses features in the STL. The C++ Standard Library is defined by ISO/IEC 14882.

stored procedure

A combination of SQL statements and control and conditional handling statements that run using a single call statement. Teradata Version 2 Release 4 and later supports stored procedures. Combinations of procedural and non‑procedural statements run using a single call statement.

Stream operator

A Teradata PT consumer operator that allows parallel Inserts, Updates, and Deletes to new or preexisting Teradata tables.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

A standardized query language for requesting information from a database. SQL consists of a set of facilities for defining, manipulating, and controlling data in a relational database.

Structured Query Language Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI)

A programming interface designed to support SQL access to databases from shrink-wrapped application programs. SQL/CLI provides and international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. Client-server tools can easily access database through dynamic link libraries. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools.

T

table

A two-dimensional structure made up of one or more columns with zero or more rows that consist of fields of related information. See also target table.

target table

For the Load, Update, and Stream drivers, the target table is the table on a Teradata Database which will receive the data and/or contains data to be modified. For the Export driver, the target table is the table from which the data will be extracted.

TDP

Teradata Director Program. On network-attached systems, TDP provides a high-performance interface for messages communicated between the Teradata client and the server. It provides the data communications component of the Teradata Database.

TDPID

Teradata director program identifier. Name of the Teradata Database being accessed.

Teradata Extract and Load Application Programming Interface (TELAPI)

This is the former name of Teradata PT.

Teradata Parallel Data Pump (TPump)

A utility that provides an alternative to MultiLoad for the low volume batch maintenance of large databases under control of a Teradata Database. TPump enables acquisition of all data from the client with low processor utilization.

Teradata Parallel Transporter (Teradata PT)

Teradata PT is a load and unload utility that extracts, load, and updates data from one or more sources into one or more targets with parallel streams of data.

Teradata PT trigger

One or more Teradata SQL statements associated with a table and executed when specified conditions are met.

Teradata PT Wizard

A graphical user interface (GUI) where you can define, run, and manage simple load/unload Teradata PT scripts.

Teradata SQL

The Teradata Database version of SQL, having data definition and data manipulation statements. A data definition statement would be a CREATE TABLE statement and a data manipulation statement would be a data retrieval statement (a SELECT statement).

test system

A Teradata Database where you want to import Optimizer-specific information to emulate a target system and create new queries or test new features.

trigger

One or more Teradata SQL statements associated with a table and executed when specified conditions are met.

TTU

Teradata Tools and Utilities is a suite of tools and utilities that enables optimal response time and system manageability of Teradata Database systems. Teradata PT is included in Teradata Tools and Utilities.

U

unformatted records

See records.

unicode

A universal character encoding standard. It extends ASCII and ISO 8859-1
(Latin-1) so that electronic text can convey all languages and symbols. The Unicode Consortium supplies different unicode specifications to encode the different characters and symbols, including but not limited to UTF-8 and UTF-16.

Update operator

A Teradata PT consumer operator that emulates some of the functions of the MultiLoad utility in the Teradata PT infrastructure.

user

A database associated with a person who uses the Teradata Database. The database stores the person’s private information and accesses other Teradata Databases.

V

view

An alternate way of organizing and presenting information in the Teradata Database. A view, like a table, has rows and columns. However, the rows and columns of a view are not directly stored by the Teradata Database. They are derived from the rows and columns of tables (or other views) whenever the view is referenced.

virtual table

A named table that does not physically exist, but exists only at runtime when Teradata PT processes the operations associated with its definitions.

W

Wizard

The Teradata PT Wizard. A GUI-based product that builds and runs simple load and unload job scripts.

Z

z/O

Multiple Virtual Storage. The operating system for older IBM mainframes.